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Investigation of Serum and Saliva CK, AST and LDH Levels in Herd Guards and Shelter Kangal Shepherd Dogs

https://doi.org/10.51754/cusbed.1163814

Abstract

It is a fact that Kangal shepherd dogs, who serve as herd guards, have more daily physical activity than those living in the shelter. The relationship between physical activity and muscle metabolism is well known. However, no study has been found in the literature that reveals differences in muscle metabolism among Kangal shepherd dogs that protect their herd and live in shelters. The aim of this study is to investigate the muscle metabolism differences between the herd guards and those living in the shelter in Kangal shepherd dogs. In the study, a total of 32 young male and female Kangal dogs that guard the herd and live in the shelter were randomly divided into four equal groups (n=8/group). From serum and saliva samples, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) parameters related to muscle metabolism were analyzed with an autoanalyzer. Serum CK levels were lower in shelter dogs than in herd dogs, while the highest value was observed in females in the herd. Salivary CK levels were highest in the shelter and herd male dogs and lowest in herd female dogs. The highest serum AST value was seen in females living in the shelter, while the lowest was seen in sheltered males. However, salivary AST levels were higher in males and females in the shelter and males in the herd than females in the herd. Serum LDH levels were higher in females in the shelter and males and females in the herd than males in the shelter. Saliva LDH levels were highest in the shelter and lowest in females in the herd. In this study, muscle metabolism-related variables (CK, AST, and LDH) were investigated for the first time in Kangal sheepdogs from serum and saliva samples.

References

  • 1. Akyazi, I., Ograk, Y.Z., Eraslan, E., Arslan, M., Matur, E. (2017). Livestock guarding behaviour of Kangal dogs in their native habitat. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 201, 61–66.
  • 2. Barranco, T., Tvarijonaviciute, A., Tecles, F., Carrillo, J.M., Sánchez-Resalt, C., Jimenez-Reyes, P., Rubio, M., García-Balletbó, M., Cerón, J.J., Cugat, R. (2018). Changes in creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase in saliva samples after an intense exercise: a pilot study. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 58(6), 910-916. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07214-0.
  • 3. Brancaccio, P., Limongelli, F.M., Maffulli, N. (2006). Monitoring of serum enzymes in sport. Br J Sports Med, 40(2), 96-7. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.020719.
  • 4. Brancaccio, P., Maffulli, N., Buonauro, R., Limongelli, F.M. (2008). Serum enzyme monitoring in sports medicine. Clin Sports Med, 27(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2007.09.005.
  • 5. Cafazzo, S., Maragliano, L., Bonanni, R., Scholl, F., Guarducci, M., Scarcella, R., Di Paolo, M., Pontier, D., Lai, O., Carlevaro, F., Bucci, E., Cerini, N., Carlevaro, L., Alfieri, L., Fantini, C., Natoli, E. (2014). Behavioural and physiological indicators of shelter dogs' welfare: reflections on the no-kill policy on free-ranging dogs in Italy revisited on the basis of 15 years of implementation. Physiol Behav, 133, 223-9. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.05.046.
  • 6. Cerqueira, J.A., Restan, W.A.Z., Fonseca, M.G., Catananti, L.A., Almeida, M.L.M., Junior, W.H.F., Pereira, G.T., Carciofi, A.C., Camargo Ferraz, G. (2018). Intense exercise and endurance-training program influence serum kinetics of muscle and cardiac biomarkers in dogs. Res Vet Sci, 121, 31-39. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2018.10.004.
  • 7. Finsterer, J. (2016). Biomarkers of muscle fatigue during exercise. Clin Neurophysiol, 127, 1–13.
  • 8. Frank, L., Mann, S., Johnson, J., Levine, C., Downey, R., Griffits, C., Wakshlag, J. (2015). Plasma chemistry before and after two consecutive days of racing in sled dogs: associations between muscle damage and electrolyte status. Comp. Exerc. Physiol, 11, 151–158. https://doi.org/10.3920/CEP150020
  • 9. Garry, J.P., McShane, J.M. (2000). Postcompetition elevation of muscle enzyme levels in professional football players. MedGenMed, 2(1),E4.
  • 10. González Fernández, Á., Rubia Ortí, J.E., Franco-Martinez, L., Ceron, J.J., Mariscal, G., Barrios, C. (2020). Changes in Salivary Levels of Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Aspartate Aminotransferase after Playing Rugby Sevens: The Influence of Gender. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(21), 8165. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17218165.
  • 11. Hood, D., Van Lente, F., Estes, M. (1991). Serum enzyme alterations in chronic muscle disease. A biopsy-based diagnostic assessment. Am J Clin Pathol, 95(3), 402-7. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/95.3.402.
  • 12. Jaedicke, K.M., Taylor, J.J., Preshaw, P.M. (2012). Validation and quality control of ELISAs for the use with human saliva samples. J Immunol Methods, 377(1-2), 62-65. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2012.01.010.
  • 13. Koçkaya, M. and Şireli, M. (2015). Comparison of behavioral and physiological responses of Kangal dogs in different livestock flocks. Ankara Üniv. Vet. Derg, 62(4), 261-267.
  • 14. Lucas, V., Barrera, R., Duque, F.J., Ruiz, P., Zaragoza, C. (2015).Effect of exercise on serum markers of muscle inflammation in Spanish Greyhounds. Am J Vet Res, 76(7), 637-43. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.76.7.637.
  • 15. Luke, R., Khan, S.N., Iqbal, P.S., Soman, R.R., Chakkarayan, J., Krishnan, V. (2015). Estimation of specific salivary enzymatic biomarkers in individuals with gingivitis and chronic Periodontitis: a clinical and biochemical study. J Int Oral Health, 7(9), 54–7.
  • 16. Schneider, M., Wilhelm, S., Scheideler, A., Erhard, M. (2009). Effectiveness of and physical andmental strain in search and rescue dogs during a three-day search operation. J. Vet. Behav, 4, 82. doi: 10.1016/j.jveb.2008.10.016.
  • 17. McKenzie, E.C., Jose-Cunilleras, E., Hinchcliff, K.W., Holbrook, T.C., Royer, C., Payton, M.E., Williamson, K., Nelson, S., Willard, M.D., Davis, M.S. (2007). Serum chemistry alterations in Alaskan sled dogs during five successive days of prolonged endurance exercise. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 230(10), 1486-92. doi: 10.2460/javma.230.10.1486.
  • 18. Parra, M.D., Tecles, F., Subiela, S.M., Ceron, J.J. (2005). C-reactive protein measurement in canine saliva. J Vet Diagn Investig, 17,139–44.
  • 19. Rovira, S., Munoz, A., Benito, M. (2008). Effect of exercise on physiological, blood and endocrine parameters in search and rescue-trained dogs. Vet. Med, 53(6),333–346.
  • 20. Spinella, G., Valentini, S., Musella, V., Bortolotti, E., Lopedote, M. (2021). Clinical Evaluation of Creatine Kinase and Aspartate Aminotransferase for Monitoring Muscle Effort in Working Dogs in Different Simulated Fieldworks. Animals, 11(7), 1879. doi: 10.3390/ani11071879.
  • 21. Szumilak, D., Sułowicz, W., Walatek, B. (1998). Rhabdomioliza: obraz kliniczny, przyczyny, powikłania i leczenie [Rhabdomyolysis: clinical features, causes, complications and treatment]. Przegl Lek. 55(5), 274-9.
  • 22. Tvarijonaviciute, A., Barranco, T., Rubio, M., Carrillo, J.M., Martinez-Subiela, S., Tecles, F., Carrillo, J.D., Cerón, J.J. (2017). Measurement of Creatine kinase and Aspartate aminotransferase in saliva of dogs: a pilot study. BMC Vet Res, 13(1), 168. doi: 10.1186/s12917-017-1080-x.
  • 23. Vlasakova, K., Lane, P., Michna, L., Muniappa, N., Sistare, F.D., Glaab, W.E. (2017). Response of Novel Skeletal Muscle Biomarkers in Dogs to Drug-Induced Skeletal Muscle Injury or Sustained Endurance Exercise. Toxicol Sci, 156(2), 422-427. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw262.

Sürü Koruyan ve Barınakta Tutulan Kangal Çoban Köpeklerinde Serum ve Tükürük CK, AST ve LDH Seviyelerinin Araştırılması

https://doi.org/10.51754/cusbed.1163814

Abstract

Sürü koruma görevi yapan Kangal çoban köpeklerinin günlük fiziksel aktivitelerinin barınaklarda yaşayanlara göre daha fazla olduğu bilinen bir gerçektir. Fiziksel aktivite ve kas metabolizması arasındaki ilişki iyi bilinmektedir. Ancak literatürde sürüleri koruyan ve barınaklarda yaşayan Kangal çoban köpeklerinin kas metabolizmasındaki farklılıkları ortaya koyan bir çalışma bulunmamaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, sürü koruma görevi yapan Kangal çoban köpekleri ile barınakta yaşayan Kangallar arasındaki kas metabolizması farklılıklarının araştırılmasıdır. Çalışmada sürü koruma görevi yapan ve barınakta tutulan genç Kangal köpekleri erkek ve dişi gruplarına ayrıldı toplam 32 adet köpek 4 gruba ayrıldı (n=8/grup). Serum ve tükürük örneklerinden kas metabolizması ile ilgili kreatin kinaz (CK), laktat dehidrojenaz (LDH) ve aspartat aminotransferaz (AST) parametreleri otoanalizör ile analiz edildi. Serum CK düzeyleri barınak köpeklerinde sürü koruma köpeklerine göre daha düşük bulunurken, en yüksek değer sürü koruyan dişilerde gözlendi. Tükürük CK seviyeleri barınak ve sürü koruyan erkek köpeklerde en yüksek, sürü koruyan dişi köpeklerde en düşüktü. Serum AST değeri en yüksek barınakta yaşayan dişilerde, en düşük serum AST değeri ise barınaktaki erkek köpeklerde tespit edildi. Ancak tükürük AST düzeyleri barınaktaki erkek ve dişi köpeklerde ve sürü koruyan erkeklerde yüksek olmasına rağmen sürü koruyan dişi köpeklerde ise düşüktü. Serum LDH düzeyleri barınaktaki dişilerde, sürüdeki erkek ve dişilerde yüksek, barınaktaki erkek köpeklerde ise düşüktü. Tükürük LDH düzeyleri barınak köpeklerinde en yüksek, sürü koruyan dişilerde en düşüktü. Bu çalışmada ilk kez Kangal çoban köpeklerinde serum ve tükürük örneklerinde kas metabolizması ile ilgili değişkenler (CK, AST ve LDH) araştırılmıştır.

References

  • 1. Akyazi, I., Ograk, Y.Z., Eraslan, E., Arslan, M., Matur, E. (2017). Livestock guarding behaviour of Kangal dogs in their native habitat. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 201, 61–66.
  • 2. Barranco, T., Tvarijonaviciute, A., Tecles, F., Carrillo, J.M., Sánchez-Resalt, C., Jimenez-Reyes, P., Rubio, M., García-Balletbó, M., Cerón, J.J., Cugat, R. (2018). Changes in creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase in saliva samples after an intense exercise: a pilot study. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 58(6), 910-916. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07214-0.
  • 3. Brancaccio, P., Limongelli, F.M., Maffulli, N. (2006). Monitoring of serum enzymes in sport. Br J Sports Med, 40(2), 96-7. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.020719.
  • 4. Brancaccio, P., Maffulli, N., Buonauro, R., Limongelli, F.M. (2008). Serum enzyme monitoring in sports medicine. Clin Sports Med, 27(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2007.09.005.
  • 5. Cafazzo, S., Maragliano, L., Bonanni, R., Scholl, F., Guarducci, M., Scarcella, R., Di Paolo, M., Pontier, D., Lai, O., Carlevaro, F., Bucci, E., Cerini, N., Carlevaro, L., Alfieri, L., Fantini, C., Natoli, E. (2014). Behavioural and physiological indicators of shelter dogs' welfare: reflections on the no-kill policy on free-ranging dogs in Italy revisited on the basis of 15 years of implementation. Physiol Behav, 133, 223-9. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.05.046.
  • 6. Cerqueira, J.A., Restan, W.A.Z., Fonseca, M.G., Catananti, L.A., Almeida, M.L.M., Junior, W.H.F., Pereira, G.T., Carciofi, A.C., Camargo Ferraz, G. (2018). Intense exercise and endurance-training program influence serum kinetics of muscle and cardiac biomarkers in dogs. Res Vet Sci, 121, 31-39. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2018.10.004.
  • 7. Finsterer, J. (2016). Biomarkers of muscle fatigue during exercise. Clin Neurophysiol, 127, 1–13.
  • 8. Frank, L., Mann, S., Johnson, J., Levine, C., Downey, R., Griffits, C., Wakshlag, J. (2015). Plasma chemistry before and after two consecutive days of racing in sled dogs: associations between muscle damage and electrolyte status. Comp. Exerc. Physiol, 11, 151–158. https://doi.org/10.3920/CEP150020
  • 9. Garry, J.P., McShane, J.M. (2000). Postcompetition elevation of muscle enzyme levels in professional football players. MedGenMed, 2(1),E4.
  • 10. González Fernández, Á., Rubia Ortí, J.E., Franco-Martinez, L., Ceron, J.J., Mariscal, G., Barrios, C. (2020). Changes in Salivary Levels of Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Aspartate Aminotransferase after Playing Rugby Sevens: The Influence of Gender. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(21), 8165. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17218165.
  • 11. Hood, D., Van Lente, F., Estes, M. (1991). Serum enzyme alterations in chronic muscle disease. A biopsy-based diagnostic assessment. Am J Clin Pathol, 95(3), 402-7. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/95.3.402.
  • 12. Jaedicke, K.M., Taylor, J.J., Preshaw, P.M. (2012). Validation and quality control of ELISAs for the use with human saliva samples. J Immunol Methods, 377(1-2), 62-65. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2012.01.010.
  • 13. Koçkaya, M. and Şireli, M. (2015). Comparison of behavioral and physiological responses of Kangal dogs in different livestock flocks. Ankara Üniv. Vet. Derg, 62(4), 261-267.
  • 14. Lucas, V., Barrera, R., Duque, F.J., Ruiz, P., Zaragoza, C. (2015).Effect of exercise on serum markers of muscle inflammation in Spanish Greyhounds. Am J Vet Res, 76(7), 637-43. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.76.7.637.
  • 15. Luke, R., Khan, S.N., Iqbal, P.S., Soman, R.R., Chakkarayan, J., Krishnan, V. (2015). Estimation of specific salivary enzymatic biomarkers in individuals with gingivitis and chronic Periodontitis: a clinical and biochemical study. J Int Oral Health, 7(9), 54–7.
  • 16. Schneider, M., Wilhelm, S., Scheideler, A., Erhard, M. (2009). Effectiveness of and physical andmental strain in search and rescue dogs during a three-day search operation. J. Vet. Behav, 4, 82. doi: 10.1016/j.jveb.2008.10.016.
  • 17. McKenzie, E.C., Jose-Cunilleras, E., Hinchcliff, K.W., Holbrook, T.C., Royer, C., Payton, M.E., Williamson, K., Nelson, S., Willard, M.D., Davis, M.S. (2007). Serum chemistry alterations in Alaskan sled dogs during five successive days of prolonged endurance exercise. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 230(10), 1486-92. doi: 10.2460/javma.230.10.1486.
  • 18. Parra, M.D., Tecles, F., Subiela, S.M., Ceron, J.J. (2005). C-reactive protein measurement in canine saliva. J Vet Diagn Investig, 17,139–44.
  • 19. Rovira, S., Munoz, A., Benito, M. (2008). Effect of exercise on physiological, blood and endocrine parameters in search and rescue-trained dogs. Vet. Med, 53(6),333–346.
  • 20. Spinella, G., Valentini, S., Musella, V., Bortolotti, E., Lopedote, M. (2021). Clinical Evaluation of Creatine Kinase and Aspartate Aminotransferase for Monitoring Muscle Effort in Working Dogs in Different Simulated Fieldworks. Animals, 11(7), 1879. doi: 10.3390/ani11071879.
  • 21. Szumilak, D., Sułowicz, W., Walatek, B. (1998). Rhabdomioliza: obraz kliniczny, przyczyny, powikłania i leczenie [Rhabdomyolysis: clinical features, causes, complications and treatment]. Przegl Lek. 55(5), 274-9.
  • 22. Tvarijonaviciute, A., Barranco, T., Rubio, M., Carrillo, J.M., Martinez-Subiela, S., Tecles, F., Carrillo, J.D., Cerón, J.J. (2017). Measurement of Creatine kinase and Aspartate aminotransferase in saliva of dogs: a pilot study. BMC Vet Res, 13(1), 168. doi: 10.1186/s12917-017-1080-x.
  • 23. Vlasakova, K., Lane, P., Michna, L., Muniappa, N., Sistare, F.D., Glaab, W.E. (2017). Response of Novel Skeletal Muscle Biomarkers in Dogs to Drug-Induced Skeletal Muscle Injury or Sustained Endurance Exercise. Toxicol Sci, 156(2), 422-427. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw262.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Veterinary
Authors

Mustafa KOÇKAYA> (Primary Author)
SİVAS CUMHURİYET ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ, VETERİNER HEKİMLİĞİ TEMEL BİLİMLER BÖLÜMÜ, VETERİNERLİK FİZYOLOJİSİ ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0001-5173-0853
Türkiye


Mehmet EKİCİ>
SİVAS CUMHURİYET ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ, VETERİNER HEKİMLİĞİ TEMEL BİLİMLER BÖLÜMÜ, VETERİNERLİK FİZYOLOJİSİ ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-2163-6214
Türkiye

Publication Date

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APA Koçkaya, M. & Ekici, M. (). Investigation of Serum and Saliva CK, AST and LDH Levels in Herd Guards and Shelter Kangal Shepherd Dogs . Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi , , . DOI: 10.51754/cusbed.1163814
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