Research Article
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Determination of Anxiety, Stress Levels and Coping Strategies of Midwives and Nurses Working in the COVID-19 Pandemic Process

Year 2023, Volume: 8 Issue: 1, 1 - 10, 30.04.2023
https://doi.org/10.51754/cusbed.1080272

Abstract

This research was conducted to determine the anxiety, stress levels and coping strategies of midwives and nurses working during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample of this descriptive study consisted of 212 midwives (n=69) and nurses (n=143) working in a Training and Research Hospital in a city center. Data were collected using Personal Information Form, Coronavirus Anxiety Scale Short Form, Stress Symptom Scale and Coping Strategies Scale (CSS). There is a statistically significant positive relationship between anxiety and stress mean scores in both midwives and nurses, and a negative relationship between anxiety and problem solving of midwives (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference was found between the anxiety mean scores of midwives according to their health status, their colleagues, change in private and family life due to COVID-19; between the stress mean scores according to their health status; between problem solving mean scores according to job title (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference was found between the anxiety and stress mean scores according to the health status and working hours of nurses; their problem solving mean scores according to gender and department; between CSS sub-dimensions according to the change in private and family life due to COVID-19 (p<0.05). Health status, colleagues, changes in private and family life of midwives affect anxiety, health stress levels, and occupational coping strategies. In addition, health status and working hours of nurses affect anxiety and stress; gender, working in the emergency room, and experiencing changes in private and family life due to COVID-19 affect coping strategies.

References

  • Abid, M., Riaz, M., Bano, Z., Parveen, T., Fayyaz, M.U., & Qureshi, H.S. (2021). Association between fear of COVID-19 and emotional distress in nurses with mediating role of socio-demographic features. Front Psychol, 12, 734623. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.734623
  • Adriaenssens, J., De Gucht, V., & Maes, S. (2015). Determinants and prevalence of burnout in emergency nurses: A systematic review of 25 years of research. Int J Nurs Stud, 52(2), 649–661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.11.004
  • Al Maqbali, M., Al Sinani, M., & Al-Lenjawi, B. (2021). Prevalence of stress, depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res, 141, 110343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110343
  • Amirkhan, J.H. (1990). A factor analitically derived measure of coping: The coping strategy indicator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(5), 1066–1074. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.5.1066
  • Aysan, F. (2003). Başa Çıkma Stratejisi Ölçeğinin Türkçe formunun oluşturulması. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 3 (1), 113–120.
  • Badahdah, A., Khamis, F., Al Mahyijari, N., Al Balushi, M., Al Hatmi, H., Al Salmi, I., Albulushi, Z., & Al Noomani, J. (2021). The mental health of health care workers in Oman during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Soc Psychiatry, 67(1), 90–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020939596
  • Biçer, İ., Çakmak, C., Demir, H., & Kurt, M.E. (2020). Koronavirüs Anksiyete Ölçeği Kısa Formu: Türkçe Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması. Anadolu Kliniği Tıp Bilimleri Dergisi, 25, 216–225.
  • Chew, N., Lee, G., Tan, B., Jing, M., Goh, Y., Ngiam, N.J.H., Yeo, L.L.L., Ahmad, A., Khan, F.A., Shanmugam, G.N., Sharma, A.K., Komalkumar, R.N., Meenakshi, P.V., Shah, K., Patel, B., Chan, B.P.L., Sunny, S., Chandra, B., Ong, J.J.Y., Paliwal, P.R., Wong, L.Y.H., Sagayanathan, R., Chen, J.T., Ng, A.Y.Y., Teoh, H.L., Tsivgoulis, G., Ho, C.S., … Sharma, V.K. (2020). A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak. Brain Behav Immun, 88, 559–565.
  • Chorwe-Sungani, G. (2021). Assessing COVID-19-related anxiety and functional impairment amongst nurses in Malawi. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med, 13(1), e1–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v13i1.2823
  • Çınar, F., Es, M., & Bülbüloğlu, S. (2021). COVİD-19 hastalarına bakım veren cerrahi hemşirelerinin stres düzeyleri ve kaynaklarının incelenmesi. Kocaeli Medical J, 10, 85–93.
  • Das Gupta, B. (1992). Perceived control and examination stress. A Journal of Human Behavior, 29, 31–34.
  • De Kock, J.H., Latham, H.A., Leslie, S.J., Grindle, M., Munoz, S-A., Liz, Ellis., Polson, R., & O’Malley, C.M. (2021). A rapid review of the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of healthcare workers: Implications for supporting psychological well-being. BMC Public Health, 21, 104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-10070-3
  • Erkal Aksoy, Y., & Koçak, V. (2020). Psychological effects of nurses and midwives due to COVID-19 outbreak: The case of Turkey. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 34, 427–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2020.07.011
  • Gül, Ş., & Toptaş Kılıç, S. (2021). Determining anxiety levels and related factors in operating room nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic: A descriptive study. J Nurs Manag, 29, 1934–1945. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13332
  • Hovardaoğlu, S. (1997). Stres belirtileri ile durumsal ve sürekli kaygının yordanması. Kriz Dergisi, 5(2), 127–135.
  • Hu, Z., & Chen, B. (2020). The status of psychological issues among frontline health workers confronting the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Front Public Health, 8, 265–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00265
  • Huang, L., Lei, W., Xu, F., Liu, H., & Yu, L. (2020). Emotional responses and coping strategies in nurses and nursing students during COVID-19 outbreak: A comparative study. PLoS ONE, 15(8), e0237303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0237303
  • Kang, L., Li, Y., Hu, S., Chen, M., Yang, C., Yang, BX., Wang, Y., Hu, J., Lai, J., Ma, X., Chen, J., Guan, L., Wang, G., Ma, H., & Liu, Z. (2020). The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. Lancet Psychiatry, 7(3), e14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30047-X
  • Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., Wu, J., Du, H., Chen, T., Li, R., Tan, H., Kang, L., Yao, L., Huang, M., Wang, H., Wang, G., Liu, Z., & Hu, S. (2020). Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open, 3(3), e203976. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976
  • Lee, S.A. (2020a). Replication analysis of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 2(33), 203–205.
  • Lee, S.A. (2020b). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Stud, 44(7), 393–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1748481
  • Lenzo, V., Quattropani, M.C., Sardella, A., Martino, G., & Bonanno, G.A. (2021). Depression, anxiety, and stress among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak and relationships with expressive flexibility and context sensitivity. Front Psychol, 12, 623033. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.623033
  • McFadden, P., Ross, J., Moriarty, J., Mallett, J., Schroder, H., Ravalier, J., Manthorpe, J., Currie, D., Harron, J., & Gillen, P. (2021). The role of coping in the wellbeing and work-related quality of life of UK health and social careworkers during COVID-19. Int J Enviro Res Public Health, 18(2), 815. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020815
  • Mo, Y., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Lang, Q., Liao, C., Wang, N., Qin, Mingqin., & Huang, H. (2020). Work stress among Chinese nurses to support Wuhan in fighting against COVID-19 epidemic. J Nurs Manag, 28(5), 1002–1009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13014
  • Murat, M., Köse, S., & Savaşer, S. (2021). Determination of stress, depression and burnout levels of front-line nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Ment Health Nurs, 30(2), 533–543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/inm.12818
  • Mwape, L., Lyambai, K., Chirwa, E., Mtonga, M., Katowa-Mukwato, P., & Lloyd, A. (2022). COVID-19 pandemic through the lenses of nurses and midwives in Zambia: Exploring depression, anxiety and stress. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 12, 11–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojpsych.2022.121002
  • Nadeem, F., Sadiq, A., Raziq, A., Iqbal, Q., Haider, S., Saleem, F., & Bashaar, M. (2021). Depression, anxiety, and stress among nurses during the COVID-19 wave III: Results of a cross-sectional assessment. J Multidiscip Healthc, 14, 3093–3101. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S338104
  • Natividad, M.J.B., Aljohani, K.A., Roque, M.Y., & Gamboa, H.M. (2021). Feelings, stress, and coping of nurses amidst COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences, 16(2), 285–300.
  • Sakaoğlu, H.H., Orbatu, D., Emiroglu, M., & Çakır, Ö. (2020). Covid-19 salgını sırasında sağlık çalışanlarında Spielberger durumluk ve sürekli kaygı düzeyi: Tepecik Hastanesi örneği. Tepecik Eğit ve Araşt Hast Derg, 30, 1–9.
  • Saricam, M. (2020). COVID-19-related anxiety in nurses working on front lines in Turkey. Nurs Midwifery Stud, 9, 178–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/nms.nms_40_20
  • Selçuk Tosun, A., & Akgül Gündoğdu, N. (2021). Anxiety levels and solution-focused thinking skills of nurses and midwives working in primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic: A descriptive correlational study. J Nurs Manag, 29(7), 1946–1955. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13334
  • Serrano, J., Hassamal, S., Hassamal, S., Dong, F., & Neeki, M. (2021). Depression and anxiety prevalence in nursing staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nurs Manage, 52(6), 24–32.
  • Wu, P.E., Styra, R., & Gold, W.L. (2020). Mitigating the psychological effects of COVID-19 on health care workers. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 192(17), E459–E460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200519
  • Yüncü, V., & Yılan, Y. (2020). COVİD-19 pandemisinin sağlık çalışanlarına etkilerinin incelenmesi: Bir durum analizi. Iğdır Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Ek sayı, 373–401.
  • Zhang, Y., Wang, C., Pan, W., Zheng, J., Gao, J., Huang, X., Cai, S., Zhai, Y., Latour. J.M., & Zhu, C. (2020). Stress, burnout, and coping strategies of frontline nurses during the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. Front Psychol, 11, 565520. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.565520

COVİD-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çalışan Ebe ve Hemşirelerin Anksiyete, Stres Düzeyleri ve Başa Çıkma Stratejilerinin Belirlenmesi

Year 2023, Volume: 8 Issue: 1, 1 - 10, 30.04.2023
https://doi.org/10.51754/cusbed.1080272

Abstract

Araştırma COVİD-19 pandemi sürecinde çalışan ebe ve hemşirelerin anksiyete, stres düzeyleri ve başa çıkma stratejilerinin belirlenmesi amacı ile yapılmıştır. Tanımlayıcı türdeki araştırmanın örneklemini bir il merkezindeki Eğitim ve Araştırma hastanesinde çalışan 212 ebe (n=69) ve hemşire (n=143) oluşturmuştur. Veriler Kişisel Bilgi Formu, Koronavirüs Anksiyete Ölçeği Kısa Formu, Stres Belirti Ölçeği ve Başa Çıkma Stratejileri Ölçeği (BÇSÖ) ile toplanmıştır. Hem ebe hem de hemşirelerde anksiyete ile stres puan ortalamaları arasında pozitif yönlü, ebelerde ise anksiyete ile BÇSÖ alt boyutlarından problem çözme ile negatif yönlü istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişki vardır (p<0,05). Ebelerin sağlık durumu, COVİD-19’a bağlı iş arkadaşları, özel ve aile yaşamında değişim yaşama durumuna göre anksiyete; sağlık durumuna göre stres; meslek ünvanına göre BÇSÖ alt boyutlarından problem çözme puan ortalamaları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık saptanmıştır (p<0,05). Hemşirelerin sağlık durumu ve çalışma saatlerine göre anksiyete ve stres; cinsiyete ve çalıştığı birime göre problem çözme; COVİD-19’a bağlı özel ve aile yaşamında değişim yaşama durumuna göre BÇSÖ tüm alt boyutlarının puan ortalamaları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık bulunmuştur (p<0,05). Ebelerde sağlık, iş arkadaşları, özel ve aile yaşamında değişim yaşama durumu anksiyete, sağlık durumu stres düzeylerini, meslek başa çıkma stratejilerini etkilemektedir. Ayrıca hemşirelerde sağlık ve çalışma saatleri anksiyete ve stresi; cinsiyet, acil serviste çalışma, COVİD-19’a bağlı özel ve aile yaşamında değişim yaşama başa çıkma stratejilerini etkilemektedir.

References

  • Abid, M., Riaz, M., Bano, Z., Parveen, T., Fayyaz, M.U., & Qureshi, H.S. (2021). Association between fear of COVID-19 and emotional distress in nurses with mediating role of socio-demographic features. Front Psychol, 12, 734623. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.734623
  • Adriaenssens, J., De Gucht, V., & Maes, S. (2015). Determinants and prevalence of burnout in emergency nurses: A systematic review of 25 years of research. Int J Nurs Stud, 52(2), 649–661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.11.004
  • Al Maqbali, M., Al Sinani, M., & Al-Lenjawi, B. (2021). Prevalence of stress, depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res, 141, 110343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110343
  • Amirkhan, J.H. (1990). A factor analitically derived measure of coping: The coping strategy indicator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(5), 1066–1074. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.5.1066
  • Aysan, F. (2003). Başa Çıkma Stratejisi Ölçeğinin Türkçe formunun oluşturulması. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 3 (1), 113–120.
  • Badahdah, A., Khamis, F., Al Mahyijari, N., Al Balushi, M., Al Hatmi, H., Al Salmi, I., Albulushi, Z., & Al Noomani, J. (2021). The mental health of health care workers in Oman during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Soc Psychiatry, 67(1), 90–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020939596
  • Biçer, İ., Çakmak, C., Demir, H., & Kurt, M.E. (2020). Koronavirüs Anksiyete Ölçeği Kısa Formu: Türkçe Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması. Anadolu Kliniği Tıp Bilimleri Dergisi, 25, 216–225.
  • Chew, N., Lee, G., Tan, B., Jing, M., Goh, Y., Ngiam, N.J.H., Yeo, L.L.L., Ahmad, A., Khan, F.A., Shanmugam, G.N., Sharma, A.K., Komalkumar, R.N., Meenakshi, P.V., Shah, K., Patel, B., Chan, B.P.L., Sunny, S., Chandra, B., Ong, J.J.Y., Paliwal, P.R., Wong, L.Y.H., Sagayanathan, R., Chen, J.T., Ng, A.Y.Y., Teoh, H.L., Tsivgoulis, G., Ho, C.S., … Sharma, V.K. (2020). A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak. Brain Behav Immun, 88, 559–565.
  • Chorwe-Sungani, G. (2021). Assessing COVID-19-related anxiety and functional impairment amongst nurses in Malawi. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med, 13(1), e1–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v13i1.2823
  • Çınar, F., Es, M., & Bülbüloğlu, S. (2021). COVİD-19 hastalarına bakım veren cerrahi hemşirelerinin stres düzeyleri ve kaynaklarının incelenmesi. Kocaeli Medical J, 10, 85–93.
  • Das Gupta, B. (1992). Perceived control and examination stress. A Journal of Human Behavior, 29, 31–34.
  • De Kock, J.H., Latham, H.A., Leslie, S.J., Grindle, M., Munoz, S-A., Liz, Ellis., Polson, R., & O’Malley, C.M. (2021). A rapid review of the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of healthcare workers: Implications for supporting psychological well-being. BMC Public Health, 21, 104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-10070-3
  • Erkal Aksoy, Y., & Koçak, V. (2020). Psychological effects of nurses and midwives due to COVID-19 outbreak: The case of Turkey. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 34, 427–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2020.07.011
  • Gül, Ş., & Toptaş Kılıç, S. (2021). Determining anxiety levels and related factors in operating room nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic: A descriptive study. J Nurs Manag, 29, 1934–1945. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13332
  • Hovardaoğlu, S. (1997). Stres belirtileri ile durumsal ve sürekli kaygının yordanması. Kriz Dergisi, 5(2), 127–135.
  • Hu, Z., & Chen, B. (2020). The status of psychological issues among frontline health workers confronting the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Front Public Health, 8, 265–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00265
  • Huang, L., Lei, W., Xu, F., Liu, H., & Yu, L. (2020). Emotional responses and coping strategies in nurses and nursing students during COVID-19 outbreak: A comparative study. PLoS ONE, 15(8), e0237303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0237303
  • Kang, L., Li, Y., Hu, S., Chen, M., Yang, C., Yang, BX., Wang, Y., Hu, J., Lai, J., Ma, X., Chen, J., Guan, L., Wang, G., Ma, H., & Liu, Z. (2020). The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. Lancet Psychiatry, 7(3), e14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30047-X
  • Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., Wu, J., Du, H., Chen, T., Li, R., Tan, H., Kang, L., Yao, L., Huang, M., Wang, H., Wang, G., Liu, Z., & Hu, S. (2020). Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open, 3(3), e203976. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976
  • Lee, S.A. (2020a). Replication analysis of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 2(33), 203–205.
  • Lee, S.A. (2020b). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Stud, 44(7), 393–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1748481
  • Lenzo, V., Quattropani, M.C., Sardella, A., Martino, G., & Bonanno, G.A. (2021). Depression, anxiety, and stress among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak and relationships with expressive flexibility and context sensitivity. Front Psychol, 12, 623033. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.623033
  • McFadden, P., Ross, J., Moriarty, J., Mallett, J., Schroder, H., Ravalier, J., Manthorpe, J., Currie, D., Harron, J., & Gillen, P. (2021). The role of coping in the wellbeing and work-related quality of life of UK health and social careworkers during COVID-19. Int J Enviro Res Public Health, 18(2), 815. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020815
  • Mo, Y., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Lang, Q., Liao, C., Wang, N., Qin, Mingqin., & Huang, H. (2020). Work stress among Chinese nurses to support Wuhan in fighting against COVID-19 epidemic. J Nurs Manag, 28(5), 1002–1009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13014
  • Murat, M., Köse, S., & Savaşer, S. (2021). Determination of stress, depression and burnout levels of front-line nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Ment Health Nurs, 30(2), 533–543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/inm.12818
  • Mwape, L., Lyambai, K., Chirwa, E., Mtonga, M., Katowa-Mukwato, P., & Lloyd, A. (2022). COVID-19 pandemic through the lenses of nurses and midwives in Zambia: Exploring depression, anxiety and stress. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 12, 11–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojpsych.2022.121002
  • Nadeem, F., Sadiq, A., Raziq, A., Iqbal, Q., Haider, S., Saleem, F., & Bashaar, M. (2021). Depression, anxiety, and stress among nurses during the COVID-19 wave III: Results of a cross-sectional assessment. J Multidiscip Healthc, 14, 3093–3101. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S338104
  • Natividad, M.J.B., Aljohani, K.A., Roque, M.Y., & Gamboa, H.M. (2021). Feelings, stress, and coping of nurses amidst COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences, 16(2), 285–300.
  • Sakaoğlu, H.H., Orbatu, D., Emiroglu, M., & Çakır, Ö. (2020). Covid-19 salgını sırasında sağlık çalışanlarında Spielberger durumluk ve sürekli kaygı düzeyi: Tepecik Hastanesi örneği. Tepecik Eğit ve Araşt Hast Derg, 30, 1–9.
  • Saricam, M. (2020). COVID-19-related anxiety in nurses working on front lines in Turkey. Nurs Midwifery Stud, 9, 178–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/nms.nms_40_20
  • Selçuk Tosun, A., & Akgül Gündoğdu, N. (2021). Anxiety levels and solution-focused thinking skills of nurses and midwives working in primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic: A descriptive correlational study. J Nurs Manag, 29(7), 1946–1955. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13334
  • Serrano, J., Hassamal, S., Hassamal, S., Dong, F., & Neeki, M. (2021). Depression and anxiety prevalence in nursing staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nurs Manage, 52(6), 24–32.
  • Wu, P.E., Styra, R., & Gold, W.L. (2020). Mitigating the psychological effects of COVID-19 on health care workers. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 192(17), E459–E460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200519
  • Yüncü, V., & Yılan, Y. (2020). COVİD-19 pandemisinin sağlık çalışanlarına etkilerinin incelenmesi: Bir durum analizi. Iğdır Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Ek sayı, 373–401.
  • Zhang, Y., Wang, C., Pan, W., Zheng, J., Gao, J., Huang, X., Cai, S., Zhai, Y., Latour. J.M., & Zhu, C. (2020). Stress, burnout, and coping strategies of frontline nurses during the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. Front Psychol, 11, 565520. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.565520

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Fatmanur ÇELİK
SİVAS CUMHURİYET ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-3808-3836
Türkiye


Şükran ERTEKİN PINAR
SİVAS CUMHURİYET ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5431-8159
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Yok
Project Number Yok
Thanks Yazarlar bu çalışmaya katılan ebe ve hemşirelere teşekkür eder.
Early Pub Date April 26, 2023
Publication Date April 30, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 8 Issue: 1

Cite

APA Çelik, F. & Ertekin Pınar, Ş. (2023). COVİD-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çalışan Ebe ve Hemşirelerin Anksiyete, Stres Düzeyleri ve Başa Çıkma Stratejilerinin Belirlenmesi . Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi , 8 (1) , 1-10 . DOI: 10.51754/cusbed.1080272

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