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Yönetici Hemşirelerin Çalışan Hemşireleri Güçlendirici Davranışları Ölçeğinin Türkçeye Uyarlanması: Geçerlilik ve Güvenilirlik Çalışması

Year 2023, Volume: 8 Issue: 3, 400 - 408, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.51754/cusbed.1313522

Abstract

Hemşirelerin psikolojik, sosyal ve kültürel yönden güçlendirilmesi aidiyet duygusunu, iş tatminini artırmış tükenmişlik sendromunu azaltmıştır. Bu bakımdan hemşireleri güçlendiren ve motive eden somut davranışların ortaya konması önemlidir. Bu çalışmada, Yönetici Hemşirelerin Çalışan Hemşireleri Güçlendirici Davranışları Ölçeği (YH-ÇHGD) Türkçe formunun geçerlilik ve güvenilirliğinin doğrulanması amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma metodolojik tiptedir. Araştırmanın evrenini toplam 350 hemşire oluşturmuştur. Veri toplama işlemi 2021 yılı Şubat-Mart aylarında gerçekleştirilmiş olup, toplam 350 adet anket dağıtılmış ve 344 adet (%98.3) geri alınmıştır. Bunlardan yetersiz yanıt veren 8 anket çıkarılmış ve 336 adet anket analiz için kullanılmıştır. Ölçek çalışmalarında madde sayısının 5-10 katı katılımcıya ulaşılmalıdır. Bu nedenle, orijinal ölçekte bulunan 48 maddenin 7 katına ulaşılmıştır. Ölçek kapsam geçerliliğini 12 uzman değerlendirmiştir. Ölçeğin yapı geçerliliği doğrulayıcı faktör analiziyle, iç tutarlılığı Cronbach alfa katsayısıyla ve test-tekrar test güvenilirliği Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ile ölçülmüştür. Psikolojik güçlendirme ve YH-ÇHGD ölçekleri arasındaki doğrusal ilişki, Pearson’un korelasyon katsayısı ile ölçülmüştür. Analizlerde IBM SPSS 22 ve AMOS 22 programları kullanılmıştır. Yapı geçerliliği ölçümü için yapılan Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi sonucunda CMIN / DF değeri 1,493 olup (χ2 = 83.640, df = 56, p = .035) uygun bir model olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Model uyum indeksleri; RMSEA = .06, CFI = .96, TLI = .95, NFI = .92, GFI = .92, AGFI = .91’dir. Ölçeğin Cronbach alfa değeri .99 ve her bir alt ölçek için .92 ile .96 arasında değişmektedir. ICC değeri .95’dir. Psikolojik güçlendirme ile yönetici hemşirelerin güçlendirici davranışları arasında anlamlı ve pozitif yönde bir ilişki bulunmuştur (r = .75, p = .001). Türkçeye uyarlanan ölçek pratikte uygulanacak yeterli psikometrik özelliklere sahiptir. Yönetici hemşirelerin çalışan hemşireleri güçlendirici davranışlarının belirlenmesinde önemli olduğuna inandığımız YH-ÇHGD ölçeğini uygulamayı öneriyoruz.

References

  • Ahearne, M., Mathieu, J., & Rapp, A. (2005). To empower or not to empower your sales force? An empirical examination of the influence of leadership empowerment behavior on customer satisfaction and performance. Journal of Applied psychology, 90(5), 945.
  • Al‐Hamdan, Z., Manojlovich, M., & Tanima, B. (2017). Jordanian nursing work environments, intent to stay, and job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49(1), 103-110.
  • Amundsen, S., & Martinsen, Ø. L. (2014). Empowering leadership: Construct clarification, conceptualization, and validation of a new scale. The leadership quarterly, 25(3), 487-511.
  • Arnold, J. A., Arad, S., Rhoades, J. A., & Drasgow, F. (2000). The empowering leadership questionnaire: The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leader behaviors. Journal of organizational behavior, 21(3), 249-269.
  • Bauer, T. N., & Erdogan, B. (Eds.). (2015). The Oxford handbook of leader-member exchange. Oxford university press.
  • Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine, 25(24), 3186-3191.
  • Brunetto, Y., Shacklock, K., Teo, S., Farr‐Wharton, R., & Nelson, S. (2015). Nurses’ supervisors, learning options and organisational commitment: A ustralia, B razil and E ngland. Journal of Nursing Management, 23(8), 1029-1038.
  • Christmas, K. (2008). How work environment impacts retention. Nursing Economics, 26(5), 316.
  • Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of management review, 13(3), 471-482.
  • Cummings, G. G., MacGregor, T., Davey, M., Lee, H., Wong, C. A., Lo, E., ... & Stafford, E. (2010). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: a systematic review. International journal of nursing studies, 47(3), 363-385.
  • Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological assessment, 7(3), 286.
  • Germain, P. B., & Cummings, G. G. (2010). The influence of nursing leadership on nurse performance: a systematic literature review. Journal of nursing management, 18(4), 425-439.
  • Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219-247.
  • Güntay S. (2018). Hemşireliğin sorunları ve çözüm önerileri. https://medium.com/@hemsiree/hem%C5%9Fireli%C4%9Fin-sorunlar%C4%B1-ve-%C3%A7%C3%B6z%C3%BCm-%C3%B6nerileri-e9a803f916b6.
  • Harrington, D. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis. Oxford university press.
  • Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8: User's reference guide. Scientific Software International.
  • Kim, G. H., Kim, J., & Limb, J. (2012). Mediating effect of psychological empowerment in relationship between professional self-concept and burnout in psychiatric nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(3), 229-237.
  • Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications.
  • Laschinger, H. K. S., Finegan, J., & Wilk, P. (2009). Context matters: The impact of unit leadership and empowerment on nurses' organizational commitment. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(5), 228-235.
  • Laschinger, H. K. S., Finegan, J., & Wilk, P. (2011). Situational and dispositional influences on nurses' workplace well-being: The role of empowering unit leadership. Nursing research, 60(2), 124-131.
  • Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology, 28(4), 563-575.
  • Li, H., Shi, Y., Li, Y., Xing, Z., Wang, S., Ying, J., ... & Sun, J. (2018). Relationship between nurse psychological empowerment and job satisfaction: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of advanced nursing, 74(6), 1264-1277.
  • Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of management, 24(1), 43-72.
  • Miyata, C., Arai, H., & Suga, S. (2014). Nurse manager’s recognition behavior with staff nurses in Japan-based on semi-structured interviews. Open Journal of Nursing, 2014.
  • Ohue, T., Moriyama, M., & Nakaya, T. (2011). Examination of a cognitive model of stress, burnout, and intention to resign for Japanese nurses. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 8(1), 76-86.
  • Oyeleye, O., Hanson, P., O’Connor, N., & Dunn, D. (2013). Relationship of workplace incivility, stress, and burnout on nurses’ turnover intentions and psychological empowerment. The journal of nursing administration, 43(10), 536-542.
  • Sasaki, M., Ogata, Y., Morioka, N., Yumoto, Y., & Yonekura, Y. (2020). Development and validation of Nurse Managers’ Empowering Behavioral Scale for staff nurses. Nursing open, 7(2), 512-522.
  • Seibert, S. E., Wang, G., & Courtright, S. H. (2011). Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: a meta-analytic review. Journal of applied psychology, 96(5), 981.
  • Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.
  • Spreitzer, G. M., Kizilos, M. A., & Nason, S. W. (1997). A dimensional analysis of the relationship between psychological empowerment and effectiveness, satisfaction, and strain. Journal of management, 23(5), 679-704.
  • Şimşek, Ö. F. (2020). Yapisal eşitlik modellemesine giriş: Temel ilkeler ve LISREL uygulamalari. Ömer Faruk Şimşek.
  • Taunton, R. L., Boyle, D. K., Woods, C. Q., Hansen, H. E., & Bott, M. J. (1997). Manager leadership and retention of hospital staff nurses. Western journal of nursing research, 19(2), 205-226.
  • Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach's alpha. International journal of medical education, 2, 53.
  • Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of management review, 15(4), 666-681.
  • Uner, S., & Turan, S. (2010). The construct validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Spreitzer's psychological empowerment scale. BMC public health, 10, 1-8.
  • World Health Organization. (2006). New global alliance seeks to address worldwide shortage of doctors, nurses and other health workers. In New global alliance seeks to address worldwide shortage of doctors, nurses and other health workers.
  • Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of management journal, 53(1), 107-128.

Adaptation of Nurse Managers' Empowering Behaviors Scale for the Staff Nurses into Turkish: A Study of Validity and Reliability

Year 2023, Volume: 8 Issue: 3, 400 - 408, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.51754/cusbed.1313522

Abstract

Empowering nurses psychologically, socially, and culturally has increased their sense of belonging and job satisfaction and decreased burnout syndrome. Therefore, it is important to reveal empowering and motivating real behaviors. In this study, it is aimed to confirm the validity and reliability of the Turkish form of Nurse Managers’ Empowering Behavioral Scale for Staff Nurses (NMEB-SN). The study is of methodological type. The population of the study includes 350 nurses. Data collection was performed in February-March 2021, a total of 350 survey forms were delivered and 344 (98.3%) were taken back. Among these, 8 questionnaires with insufficient answers were removed and 336 questionnaires were used for analysis. In scale studies, the participant number that 5-10 times the number of items should be reached. Therefore, 7 times of the 48 items included in the original scale were reached. The scale content validity was evaluated by 12 experts. The construct validity of the scale was measured by confirmatory factor analysis, the internal consistency by Cronbach alpha coefficient and the test-retest reliability by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The linear relationship between the psychological empowerment and NMEB-SN was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. IBM SPSS 22 and AMOS 22 were used in the analysis. CMIN / DF value was 1.493 (χ2 = 83.640, df = 56, p = .035) because of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis performed for construct validity and it was evaluated as a proper model. Model fit indices are RMSEA = .06, CFI = .96, TLI = .95, NFI = .92, GFI = .92, AGFI = .91. The Cronbach alpha value of the scale is .99 and it ranges between .92 and .96 for each subscale. ICC value is .95. A positive significant relationship was found between psychological empowerment and empowering behaviors of the executive nurses (r = .75, p = .001). The scale, which has been adapted into Turkish, has sufficient psychometric characteristics to be practiced. We recommend applying the NMEB-SN scale, which we believe is important in determining the nurse managers’ empowering behaviors for staff nurses.

References

  • Ahearne, M., Mathieu, J., & Rapp, A. (2005). To empower or not to empower your sales force? An empirical examination of the influence of leadership empowerment behavior on customer satisfaction and performance. Journal of Applied psychology, 90(5), 945.
  • Al‐Hamdan, Z., Manojlovich, M., & Tanima, B. (2017). Jordanian nursing work environments, intent to stay, and job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49(1), 103-110.
  • Amundsen, S., & Martinsen, Ø. L. (2014). Empowering leadership: Construct clarification, conceptualization, and validation of a new scale. The leadership quarterly, 25(3), 487-511.
  • Arnold, J. A., Arad, S., Rhoades, J. A., & Drasgow, F. (2000). The empowering leadership questionnaire: The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leader behaviors. Journal of organizational behavior, 21(3), 249-269.
  • Bauer, T. N., & Erdogan, B. (Eds.). (2015). The Oxford handbook of leader-member exchange. Oxford university press.
  • Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine, 25(24), 3186-3191.
  • Brunetto, Y., Shacklock, K., Teo, S., Farr‐Wharton, R., & Nelson, S. (2015). Nurses’ supervisors, learning options and organisational commitment: A ustralia, B razil and E ngland. Journal of Nursing Management, 23(8), 1029-1038.
  • Christmas, K. (2008). How work environment impacts retention. Nursing Economics, 26(5), 316.
  • Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of management review, 13(3), 471-482.
  • Cummings, G. G., MacGregor, T., Davey, M., Lee, H., Wong, C. A., Lo, E., ... & Stafford, E. (2010). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: a systematic review. International journal of nursing studies, 47(3), 363-385.
  • Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological assessment, 7(3), 286.
  • Germain, P. B., & Cummings, G. G. (2010). The influence of nursing leadership on nurse performance: a systematic literature review. Journal of nursing management, 18(4), 425-439.
  • Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219-247.
  • Güntay S. (2018). Hemşireliğin sorunları ve çözüm önerileri. https://medium.com/@hemsiree/hem%C5%9Fireli%C4%9Fin-sorunlar%C4%B1-ve-%C3%A7%C3%B6z%C3%BCm-%C3%B6nerileri-e9a803f916b6.
  • Harrington, D. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis. Oxford university press.
  • Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8: User's reference guide. Scientific Software International.
  • Kim, G. H., Kim, J., & Limb, J. (2012). Mediating effect of psychological empowerment in relationship between professional self-concept and burnout in psychiatric nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(3), 229-237.
  • Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications.
  • Laschinger, H. K. S., Finegan, J., & Wilk, P. (2009). Context matters: The impact of unit leadership and empowerment on nurses' organizational commitment. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(5), 228-235.
  • Laschinger, H. K. S., Finegan, J., & Wilk, P. (2011). Situational and dispositional influences on nurses' workplace well-being: The role of empowering unit leadership. Nursing research, 60(2), 124-131.
  • Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology, 28(4), 563-575.
  • Li, H., Shi, Y., Li, Y., Xing, Z., Wang, S., Ying, J., ... & Sun, J. (2018). Relationship between nurse psychological empowerment and job satisfaction: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of advanced nursing, 74(6), 1264-1277.
  • Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of management, 24(1), 43-72.
  • Miyata, C., Arai, H., & Suga, S. (2014). Nurse manager’s recognition behavior with staff nurses in Japan-based on semi-structured interviews. Open Journal of Nursing, 2014.
  • Ohue, T., Moriyama, M., & Nakaya, T. (2011). Examination of a cognitive model of stress, burnout, and intention to resign for Japanese nurses. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 8(1), 76-86.
  • Oyeleye, O., Hanson, P., O’Connor, N., & Dunn, D. (2013). Relationship of workplace incivility, stress, and burnout on nurses’ turnover intentions and psychological empowerment. The journal of nursing administration, 43(10), 536-542.
  • Sasaki, M., Ogata, Y., Morioka, N., Yumoto, Y., & Yonekura, Y. (2020). Development and validation of Nurse Managers’ Empowering Behavioral Scale for staff nurses. Nursing open, 7(2), 512-522.
  • Seibert, S. E., Wang, G., & Courtright, S. H. (2011). Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: a meta-analytic review. Journal of applied psychology, 96(5), 981.
  • Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.
  • Spreitzer, G. M., Kizilos, M. A., & Nason, S. W. (1997). A dimensional analysis of the relationship between psychological empowerment and effectiveness, satisfaction, and strain. Journal of management, 23(5), 679-704.
  • Şimşek, Ö. F. (2020). Yapisal eşitlik modellemesine giriş: Temel ilkeler ve LISREL uygulamalari. Ömer Faruk Şimşek.
  • Taunton, R. L., Boyle, D. K., Woods, C. Q., Hansen, H. E., & Bott, M. J. (1997). Manager leadership and retention of hospital staff nurses. Western journal of nursing research, 19(2), 205-226.
  • Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach's alpha. International journal of medical education, 2, 53.
  • Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of management review, 15(4), 666-681.
  • Uner, S., & Turan, S. (2010). The construct validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Spreitzer's psychological empowerment scale. BMC public health, 10, 1-8.
  • World Health Organization. (2006). New global alliance seeks to address worldwide shortage of doctors, nurses and other health workers. In New global alliance seeks to address worldwide shortage of doctors, nurses and other health workers.
  • Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of management journal, 53(1), 107-128.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Health Care Administration
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Kürşat YURDAKOŞ 0000-0002-1473-5513

Tolgay ERCAN 0000-0002-6893-4358

Early Pub Date December 26, 2023
Publication Date December 30, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 8 Issue: 3

Cite

APA YURDAKOŞ, K., & ERCAN, T. (2023). Yönetici Hemşirelerin Çalışan Hemşireleri Güçlendirici Davranışları Ölçeğinin Türkçeye Uyarlanması: Geçerlilik ve Güvenilirlik Çalışması. Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 8(3), 400-408. https://doi.org/10.51754/cusbed.1313522

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